Essay on the role of education in society Ashish Agarwal Advertisements: Education, has a great social importance specially in the modern, complex industrialised societies. Philosophers of all periods, beginning with ancient stages, devoted to it a great deal of attention. Accordingly, various theories regarding its nature and objective have come into being.
States generally rely on a claim to some form of political legitimacy in order to maintain domination over their subjects. Divine right of kings The rise of the modern day state system was closely related to changes in political thought, especially concerning the changing understanding of legitimate state power and control.
Early modern defenders of absolutism Absolute monarchysuch as Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin undermined the doctrine of the divine right of kings by arguing that the power of kings should be justified by reference to the people.
Hobbes in particular went further to argue that political power should be justified with reference to the individual Hobbes wrote in the time of the English Civil warnot just to the people understood collectively.
Both Hobbes and Bodin thought they were defending the power of kings, not advocating for democracy, but their arguments about the nature of sovereignty were fiercely resisted by more traditional defenders of the power of kings, such as Sir Robert Filmer in England, who thought that such defenses ultimately opened the way to more democratic claims.
Rational-legal authority Max Weber identified three main sources of political legitimacy in his works. The first, legitimacy based on traditional grounds is derived from a belief that things should be as they have been in the past, and that those who defend these traditions have a legitimate claim to power.
The second, legitimacy based on charismatic leadership is devotion to a leader or group that is viewed as exceptionally heroic or virtuous. The third is rational-legal authoritywhereby legitimacy is derived from the belief that a certain group has been placed in power in a legal manner, and that their actions are justifiable according to a specific code of written laws.
Weber believed that the modern state is characterized primarily by appeals to rational-legal authority. Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process: Since the late 19th century, virtually the entirety of the world's inhabitable land has been parcelled up into areas with more or less definite borders claimed by various states.
Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organised as states.
However, even within present-day states there are vast areas of wilderness, like the Amazon rainforestwhich are uninhabited or inhabited solely or mostly by indigenous people and some of them remain uncontacted.
Also, there are states which do not hold de facto control over all of their claimed territory or where this control is challenged. Currently the international community comprises around sovereign statesthe vast majority of which are represented in the United Nations.
Stateless societies For most of human history, people have lived in stateless societiescharacterized by a lack of concentrated authority, and the absence of large inequalities in economic and political power. The anthropologist Tim Ingold writes: It is not enough to observe, in a now rather dated anthropological idiom, that hunter gatherers live in 'stateless societies', as though their social lives were somehow lacking or unfinished, waiting to be completed by the evolutionary development of a state apparatus.
Rather, the principal of their socialty, as Pierre Clastres has put it, is fundamentally against the state. Neolithic and Copper Age state societies During the Neolithic period, human societies underwent major cultural and economic changes, including the development of agriculturethe formation of sedentary societies and fixed settlements, increasing population densities, and the use of pottery and more complex tools.
It also provided the basis for the centralized state form  by producing a large surplus of food, which created a more complex division of labor by enabling people to specialize in tasks other than food production.
The ruling classes began to differentiate themselves through forms of architecture and other cultural practices that were different from those of the subordinate laboring classes. However, modern archaeological and anthropological evidence does not support this thesis, pointing to the existence of several non-stratified and politically decentralized complex societies.
MesopotamiaAncient EgyptIndus Valley Civilizationand Government of the Han Dynasty Mesopotamia is generally considered to be the location of the earliest civilization or complex societymeaning that it contained citiesfull-time division of laborsocial concentration of wealth into capitalunequal distribution of wealthruling classes, community ties based on residency rather than kinshiplong distance trademonumental architecturestandardized forms of art and culture, writing, and mathematics and science.
Athenian democracy and Roman Republic Painting of Roman Senators encircling Julius Caesar Although state-forms existed before the rise of the Ancient Greek empire, the Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state, and to have rationally analyzed political institutions.
Prior to this, states were described and justified in terms of religious myths. The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted citizenship rights to their free population, and in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history.
The feudal state[ edit ] See also: Feudalism and Middle Ages During Medieval times in Europe, the state was organized on the principle of feudalismand the relationship between lord and vassal became central to social organization.
Feudalism led to the development of greater social hierarchies. These estates of the realm sometimes evolved in the direction of fully-fledged parliaments, but sometimes lost out in their struggles with the monarch, leading to greater centralization of lawmaking and military power in his hands.
Beginning in the 15th century, this centralizing process gives rise to the absolutist state. BureaucracyConstitutionCorporationGlobalizationand Neoliberalism Cultural and national homogenization figured prominently in the rise of the modern state system. Since the absolutist period, states have largely been organized on a national basis.
The concept of a national state, however, is not synonymous with nation state. Even in the most ethnically homogeneous societies there is not always a complete correspondence between state and nationhence the active role often taken by the state to promote nationalism through emphasis on shared symbols and national identity.
In David Samuels 's words " Migdal have explored the emergence of weak states, how they are different from Western "strong" states and its consequences to the economic development of developing countries.
Early state formation To understand the formation of weak states, Samuels compares the formation of European states in the with the conditions under which more recent states were formed in the twentieth century. In this line of argument, the state allows a population to resolve a collective action problem, in which citizens recognize the authority of the state and this exercise the power of coercion over them.
This kind of social organization required a decline in legitimacy of traditional forms of ruling like religious authorities and replaced them with an increase in the legitimacy of depersonalized rule; an increase in the central government's sovereignty; and an increase in the organizational complexity of the central government bureaucracy.Essay on the role of education in society.
Education, has a great social importance specially in the modern, complex industrialised societies. Philosophers of all periods, beginning with ancient stages, devoted to it a great deal of attention. Closer analysis of the role of law vis-à-vis social change leads us to distinguish between the direct and the indirect aspects of the role of law.
1. Law plays an important indirect role in regard to social change by shaping a direct impact on society.
Course Overview. This qualifying Law degree is taught by the world-leading, research-active academics based in our prestigious Law School. They will introduce you to technical legal topics and help you to understand the ways that law shapes society. Law is a social norm, the infraction of which is sanctioned in treat or in fact by the application of physical force or by a party possessing the socially recognized privilege or so acting.
It provides a society with order and predictability, resolving disputes, protecting individuals and property, providing for the general welfare and. Published: Mon, 5 Dec In the language of social sciences, education is defined as “the transmission of certain attitudes, knowledge and skills to the members of a society through formal systematic training”.
It is here that law plays a very important role in restoring that delicate balance back to the society and making the lives of the people living together cohesive. It is here that law helps to maintain the morality of the people as individuals as well as .