Women and Leadership Public Says Women are Equally Qualified, but Barriers Persist According to the majority of Americans, women are every bit as capable of being good political leaders as men. The same can be said of their ability to dominate the corporate boardroom. So why, then, are women in short supply at the top of government and business in the United States? While economic research and previous survey findings have shown that career interruptions related to motherhood may make it harder for women to advance in their careers and compete for top executive jobs, relatively few adults in the new Pew Research survey point to this as a key barrier for women seeking leadership roles.
Scientists depend on a good reputation to receive ongoing support and fundingand a good reputation relies largely on the publication of high-profile scientific papers. Hence, there is a strong imperative to " publish or perish ".
Attachment 1 Reporting Requirements Checklist for RD&D awards RESEARCH PERFORMANCE PROGRESS REPORT Standard Cover Page Data Elements and Reporting Categories. Project progress report template Research advancement 9 Research outputs 10 Research collaboration 11 Research agreements 12 Technology transfer 13 Spin-off companies 14 Benefits for Canadians 15 Benefits for Canadians (details) 16 . May 08, · The RPPR is used by grantees to submit progress reports to NIH on their grant awards. This page provides an overview of the annual RPPR, the final RPPR and the interim RPPR and provides resources to help you understand how to submit a progress report.
Clearly, this may motivate desperate or fame-hungry scientists to fabricate results. Ease of fabrication In many scientific fields, results are often difficult to reproduce accurately, being obscured by noiseartifactsand other extraneous data.
That means that even if a scientist does falsify data, they can expect to get away with it — or at least claim innocence if their results conflict with others in the same field. There are no "scientific police" who are trained to fight scientific crimes; all investigations are made by experts in science but amateurs in dealing with criminals.
It is relatively easy to cheat although difficult to know exactly how many scientists fabricate data. National Science Foundation defines three types of research misconduct: This is sometimes referred to as "drylabbing". Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
One form is the appropriation of the ideas and results of others, and publishing as to make it appear the author had performed all the work under which the data was obtained. A subset is citation plagiarism — willful or negligent failure to appropriately credit other or prior discoverers, so as to give an improper impression of priority.
This is also known as, "citation amnesia", the "disregard syndrome" and "bibliographic negligence". Sometimes it is difficult to guess whether authors intentionally ignored a highly relevant cite or lacked knowledge of the prior work. Discovery credit can also be inadvertently reassigned from the original discoverer to a better-known researcher.
This is a special case of the Matthew effect. It is referred to as "salami" i. According to some editors this includes publishing the same article in a different language. Ghostwriting — the phenomenon where someone other than the named author s makes a major contribution.
Typically, this is done to mask contributions from authors with a conflict of interest.
Conversely, research misconduct is not limited to not listing authorship,[ citation needed ] but also includes the act of conferring authorship on those that have not made substantial contributions to the research.
This is much harder to prove due to a lack of consistency in defining "authorship" or "substantial contribution". Inthe Journal of Cell Biology gained publicity for instituting tests to detect photo manipulation in papers that were being considered for publication.
Since then more publishers, including the Nature Publishing Grouphave instituted similar tests and require authors to minimize and specify the extent of photo manipulation when a manuscript is submitted for publication.
However, there is little evidence to indicate that such tests are applied rigorously. One Nature paper published in  has subsequently been reported to contain around 20 separate instances  of image fraud.
Although the type of manipulation that is allowed can depend greatly on the type of experiment that is presented and also differ from one journal to another, in general the following manipulations are not allowed: Simultaneous submission of scientific findings to more than one journal or duplicate publication of findings is usually regarded as misconduct, under what is known as the Ingelfinger rule, named after the editor of the New England Journal of MedicineFranz Ingelfinger.
In some cases coauthors of faked research have been accused of inappropriate behavior or research misconduct for failing to verify reports authored by others or by a commercial sponsor.Project progress report template Research advancement 9 Research outputs 10 Research collaboration 11 Research agreements 12 Technology transfer 13 Spin-off companies 14 Benefits for Canadians 15 Benefits for Canadians (details) 16 .
Executive Summary. The situation of induced abortion has changed markedly over the past few decades. This report provides updated information on the incidence of abortion worldwide, the laws that regulate abortion and the safety of its provision.
The North Central Soybean Research Program, a collaboration of 12 state soybean associations, invests soybean checkoff funds to improve yields and profitability via university research and extension. This report provides six-year outcomes for first-time degree-seeking students, including former dual enrollment students, who started in postsecondary education institutions in fall It offers a look at the attainment rates for students who began their postsecondary education .
The Office of Inspector General is an independent office within EPA that helps the agency protect the environment in a more efficient and cost effective manner. The Women in the Workplace report from Lean In and McKinsey & Company is the largest study of the experiences women in corporate America face.
For four years in a row, companies have said that they are highly committed to gender diversity—yet corporate America has made almost no progress improving women’s representation.
Women continue to be vastly underrepresented at every level.