This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Homeostasis is conventionally thought of merely as a synchronic same time servo-mechanism that maintains the status quo for organismal physiology.
Volume 42, Issue 2OctoberPages The polyvagal theory: Porges Show more https: According to the polyvagal theory, the well-documented phylogenetic shift in neural regulation of the autonomic nervous system passes through three global stages, each with an associated behavioral strategy. The first stage is characterized by a primitive unmyelinated visceral vagus that fosters digestion and responds to threat by depressing metabolic activity.
Behaviorally, the first stage is associated with immobilization behaviors. The third stage, unique to mammals, is characterized by a myelinated vagus that can rapidly regulate cardiac output to foster engagement and disengagement with the environment.
The mammalian vagus is neuroanatomically linked to the cranial nerves that regulate social engagement via facial expression and vocalization. As the autonomic nervous system changed through the process of evolution, so did the interplay between the autonomic nervous system and the other physiological systems that respond to stress, including the cortex, the hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis, the neuropeptides of oxytocin and vasopressin, and the immune system.
From this phylogenetic orientation, the polyvagal theory proposes a biological basis for social behavior and an intervention strategy to enhance positive social behavior.
Previous article in issue.The Dual-Control Theory of Feeding Dual-control theory was based on a homeostatic view of hunger and satiety.
A decline in glucose activated the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep, REMS) is a unique phase of sleep in mammals and birds, distinguishable by random/rapid movement of the eyes, accompanied with low muscle tone throughout the body, and the propensity of the sleeper to dream vividly..
The REM phase is also known as paradoxical sleep (PS) and sometimes desynchronized . The Dual Center Theory does not explain the long term effects of lesioning of LH and VMH on the control of body weight.
Alternatively, it was suggested that these cerebral nuclei tend to control hunger, satiety and ultimately the body weight through a Set-Point Mechanism (defining an optimal level).
ANTI-AGING FIREWALLS THE SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF LONGEVITY. A comprehensive document for the benefit of people interested in living very long healthy lives and who are willing to adapt emerging knowledge personally to do so. The Associate in Science Degree Curriculum page for Nursing at Seminole State College located in Central Florida.
The short term system would control energy intake in view of energy we spend. A central short-term theory (which has import ants flaws) is the glucostatic theory.
It would affect when we .