For example, rock layers show the sequence of geological events, and the presence and amount of radioactive elements in rocks make it possible to determine their ages.
Moving heads in a photo studio set. Illuminating subject from beneath to achieve a heightened dramatic effect. Lighting illuminates the performers and artists in a live theatre, dance, or musical performance, and is selected and arranged to create dramatic effects.
Stage lighting uses general illumination technology in devices configured for easy adjustment of their output characteristics. Dimmers, colored filters, reflectors, lenses, motorized or manually aimed lamps, and different kinds of flood and spot lights are among the tools used by a stage lighting designer to produce the desired effects.
A set of lighting cues are prepared so that the lighting operator can control the lights in step with the performance; complex theatre lighting systems use computer control of lighting instruments. Motion picture and television production use many of the same tools and methods of stage lighting.
Especially in the early days of these industries, very high light levels were required and heat produced by lighting equipment presented substantial challenges. Modern cameras require less light, and modern light sources emit less heat. Photometry optics Measurement of light or photometry is generally concerned with the amount of useful light falling on a surface and the amount of light emerging from a lamp or other source, along with the colors that can be rendered by this light.
The human eye responds differently to light from different parts of the visible spectrum, therefore photometric measurements must take the luminosity function into account when measuring the amount of useful light.
The basic SI unit of measurement is the candela cdwhich describes the luminous intensity, all other photometric units are derived from the candela. Luminance for instance is a measure of the density of luminous intensity in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle.
The amount of useful light emitted from a source or the luminous flux is measured in lumen lm. The SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittancebeing the luminous power per area, is measured in Lux.
It is used in photometry as a measure of the intensity, as perceived by the human eye, of light that hits or passes through a surface.
It is analogous to the radiometric unit watts per square metre, but with the power at each wavelength weighted according to the luminosity functiona standardized model of human visual brightness perception.
In English, "lux" is used in both singular and plural. In addition to these new methods, four main factors influence the degree of discomfort glare; the luminance of the glare source, the solid angle of the glare source, the background luminance, and the position of the glare source in the field of view must all be taken into account.
However, these two metrics, developed in the last century, are facing increased challenges and criticisms as new types of light sources, particularly light emitting diodes LEDsbecome more prevalent in the market. For example, in order to meet the expectations for good color rendering in retail applications, research  suggests using the well-established CRI along with another metric called gamut area index GAI.
GAI represents the relative separation of object colors illuminated by a light source; the greater the GAI, the greater the apparent saturation or vividness of the object colors. In order to specifically measure the amount of light entering the eye, personal circadian light meter called the Daysimeter has been developed.
The device measures activity and light together at regular time intervals and electronically stores and logs its operating temperature.
The Daysimeter can gather data for up to 30 days for analysis. Specification of illumination requirements for each given use area. Analysis of lighting quality to ensure that adverse components of lighting for example, glare or incorrect color spectrum are not biasing the design. Integration of space planning and interior architecture including choice of interior surfaces and room geometries to lighting design.
Design of time of day use that does not expend unnecessary energy. Selection of fixture and lamp types that reflect best available technology for energy conservation. Training of building occupants to use lighting equipment in most efficient manner.
Maintenance of lighting systems to minimize energy wastage. Use of natural light Some big box stores were being built from on with numerous plastic bubble skylights, in many cases completely obviating the need for interior artificial lighting for many hours of the day.
In countries where indoor lighting of simple dwellings is a significant cost, " Moser lamps ", plastic water-filled transparent drink bottles fitted through the roof, provide the equivalent of a to watt incandescent bulb each during daylight.
Load shedding can be done on an individual level, at a building level, or even at a regional level.
Specification of illumination requirements is the basic concept of deciding how much illumination is required for a given task. Clearly, much less light is required to illuminate a hallway compared to that needed for a word processing work station.
Generally speaking, the energy expended is proportional to the design illumination level. For example, a lighting level of lux might be chosen for a work environment involving meeting rooms and conferences, whereas a level of 80 lux could be selected for building hallways.
Unfortunately, most of the lighting standards even today have been specified by industrial groups who manufacture and sell lighting, so that a historical commercial bias exists in designing most building lighting, especially for office and industrial settings.
Lighting control systems[ edit ] Main article: Lighting control system Lighting control systems reduce energy usage and cost by helping to provide light only when and where it is needed. Lighting control systems typically incorporate the use of time schedules, occupancy control, and photocell control i.Space transport system from the game FTL: by Tri Tac Games; Of course, once you have torchships you can stop all this child's play with wimpy Hohmann transfers and start doing some big muscular Brachistochrone trajectories.
Brachistochrones typically require delta Vs that are hundreds of times more than the equivalent Hohmann. Whole Building Energy Analysis: A Comparative Study of Different Simulation Tools and Applications in Architectural Design Abul Abdullah and Ben Cross, Perkins+Will.
A human being is part of the whole called by us universe, a an introduction to the analysis of gender equity part limited in an introduction to the analysis of energy living in space time and a comparison of the japanese government and american government space.
7. Dimension 3 DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEAS—EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES. E arth and space sciences (ESS) investigate processes that operate on Earth and also address its place in the solar system and the galaxy.
Thus ESS involve phenomena that range in scale from the unimaginably large to the invisibly small. Space Settlement: An Easier Way (PDF), Al Globus, Stephen Covey, and Daniel Faber, NSS Journal of Space Settlement, July Describes a relatively easy, incremental path to free space settlement by taking advantage of very low radiation levels in Equatorial Low .
Living In Space: Energy Space is filled with radiant energy and beyond earth's atmosphere this energy flow more steadily and more intensely from the sun than that which penetrates to the surface of the Earth.