Bolzano in Prehistory and Roman settlement[ edit ] The modern-day Bolzano was in ancient times a marshy region inhabited by the Raetian Isarci people, traditionally believed to be descendants of Etruscan refugees fleeing Italy from the invading Gauls. Inexcavations of the current Cathedral led to the discovery of an ancient Christian basilica from the 4th century. Also discovered was a Roman cemetery, including the tomb of "Secundus Regontius" with Latin inscriptions dating to the 3rd century, making him the oldest known inhabitant of Bolzano.
Family[ edit ] Bolzano was the son of two pious Catholics. Only two of their twelve children lived to adulthood. Career[ edit ] Bolzano entered the University of Prague in and studied mathematicsphilosophy and physics.
Starting inhe also began studying theologybecoming a Catholic priest in He was appointed to the new chair of philosophy of religion at Prague University in Bolzano alienated many faculty and church leaders with his teachings of the social waste of militarism and the needlessness of war.
He urged a total reform of the educational, social and economic systems that would direct the nation's interests toward peace rather than toward armed conflict between nations. Upon his refusal to recant his beliefs, Bolzano was dismissed from the university in His political convictions, which he was inclined to share with others with some frequency, eventually proved to be too liberal for the Austrian authorities.
|A SYNTHETIC OVERVIEW OF BOLZANO'S PHILOSOPHY||He is also known for his antimilitarist views.|
|BIBLIOGRAPHY||Prague, Czechoslovakia, 5 October ; d.|
|Bolzano biography||Family[ edit ] Bolzano was the son of two pious Catholics. Only two of their twelve children lived to adulthood.|
He was exiled to the countryside and then devoted A biography of bernard bolzano energies to his writings on social, religious, philosophical, and mathematical matters. Although forbidden to publish in mainstream journals as a condition of his exile, Bolzano continued to develop his ideas and publish them either on his own or in obscure Eastern European journals.
In he moved back to Prague, where he died in Mathematical work[ edit ] Bolzano made several original contributions to mathematics. His overall philosophical stance was that, contrary to much of the prevailing mathematics of the era, it was better not to introduce intuitive ideas such as time and motion into mathematics Boyerpp.
These works presented " Bolzano was the first to recognize the greatest lower bound property of the real numbers. Bolzano's notion of a limit was similar to the modern one: Bolzano also gave the first purely analytic proof of the fundamental theorem of algebrawhich had originally been proven by Gauss from geometrical considerations.
He also gave the first purely analytic proof of the intermediate value theorem also known as Bolzano's theorem. Philosophical work[ edit ] Bolzano's posthumously published work Paradoxien des Unendlichen The Paradoxes of the Infinite was greatly admired by many of the eminent logicians who came after him, including Charles Sanders PeirceGeorg Cantorand Richard Dedekind.
Bolzano's main claim to fame, however, is his Wissenschaftslehre Theory of Sciencea work in four volumes that covered not only philosophy of science in the modern sense but also logic, epistemology and scientific pedagogy.
The logical theory that Bolzano developed in this work has come to be acknowledged as ground-breaking. Other works are a four-volume Lehrbuch der Religionswissenschaft Textbook of the Science of Religion and the metaphysical work Athanasia, a defense of the immortality of the soul.
Bolzano also did valuable work in mathematics, which remained virtually unknown until Otto Stolz rediscovered many of his lost journal articles and republished them in Wissenschaftslehre Theory of Science [ edit ] In his Wissenschaftslehre Bolzano attempted to provide logical foundations for all sciences, building on abstractions like part-relation, abstract objectsattributes, sentence-shapes, ideas and propositions in themselves, sums and setscollections, substances, adherences, subjective ideas, judgments, and sentence-occurrences.
For Bolzano, it was not enough that we merely have confirmation of natural or mathematical truths, but rather it was the proper role of the sciences both pure and applied to seek out justification in terms of the fundamental truths that may or may not appear to be obvious to our intuitions.
Introduction to Wissenschaftslehre[ edit ] Bolzano begins his work by explaining what he means by theory of science, and the relation between our knowledge, truths and sciences.
Human knowledge, he states, is made of all truths or true propositions that men know or have known. This is, however, only a very small fraction of all the truths that exist, although still too much for one human being to comprehend.
Therefore, our knowledge is divided into more accessible parts. Such a collection of truths is what Bolzano calls a science Wissenschaft. It is important to note that not all true propositions of a science have to be known to men; hence, this is how we can make discoveries in a science.
To better understand and comprehend the truths of a science, men have created textbooks Lehrbuchwhich of course contain only the true propositions of the science known to men. But how to know where to divide our knowledge, that is, which truths belong together? Bolzano explains that we will ultimately know this through some reflection, but that the resulting rules of how to divide our knowledge into sciences will be a science in itself.
This science, that tells us which truths belong together and should be explained in a textbook, is the Theory of Science Wissenschaftslehre. In the Wissenschaftslehre, Bolzano is mainly concerned with three realms: Bolzano devotes a great part of the Wissenschaftslehre to an explanation of these realms and their relations.
Two distinctions play a prominent role in his system. Firstly, the distinction between parts and wholes. For instance, words are parts of sentences, subjective ideas are parts of judgments, objective ideas are parts of propositions in themselves. Bolzano's original claim is that the logical realm is populated by objects of the latter kind.Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano or Bernard Bolzano in English, (October 5, – December 18, ), was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest.
He is also known for his antimilitarist views. Bolzano is an author of German expression, which was his mother tongue.
Bolzano, Bernard(b. Prague, Czechoslovakia, 5 October ; d. Prague, 18 December )Philosophy, mathematics, logic, religion, r-bridal.como was born in one of the oldest quarters of Prague and was baptized Bernardus Placidus Johann Nepomuk. Bolzano, Bernhard () Bohemian priest and mathematician who made definitions of a limit, derivative, continuity, and convergence as had Cauchy.
(Bohemia was part of the Austrian Habsburg domain and is now part of the Czech Republic.). Bernhard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano or Bernard Bolzano in English, (October 5, – December 18, ), was a Bohemian mathematician, logician, philosopher, theologian and Catholic priest.
He is also known for his antimilitarist views. Bolzano is an author of German expression, which was his mother tongue. Talk:Bernard Bolzano Jump to This article is within the scope of WikiProject Biography, a collaborative effort to create, develop and organize Wikipedia's articles about people.
All interested editors are invited to join the project and contribute to the discussion. The first section of the article deals with Bolzano's biography, and the second section presents a survey of Bolzano's main writings; the following sections (3 to 12) are devoted to the different branches of philosophy to which Bolzano made contributions.
Bernard-Bolzano-Gesamtausgabe, with a Roman numeral for the series and Arabic numerals.